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Le Conseil de l’Europe rappelle à l’ordre les États européens sur les droits LGBT
par  la rédaction, le samedi 1er mai 2010, vu 1159 fois
Tags : - Europe - Homoparentalité - Discrimination

L’Assemblée parlementaire du Conseil de l’Europe (APCE) a débattu cette semaine la question des discriminations sur la base de l’orientation sexuelle et de l’identité de genre. Au terme de cette semaine de débats, les parlementaires ont adopté hier, jeudi 29 avril, un texte demandant aux États membres de garantir plusieurs droits fondamentaux aux personnes LGBT.

“RESPONSABILITÉ PARENTALE COMMUNE”

Ainsi, l’APCE a demandé aux États européens qu’ils garantissent “la reconnaissance juridique des couples de même sexe lorsque la législation nationale prévoit une telle reconnaissance” et qu’ils prévoient la possibilité d’une “responsabilité parentale commune” des enfants de chacun des deux partenaires “en tenant compte des intérêts des enfants”.

Le texte adopté demande également que soit garantie dans la législation et la pratique les droits de personnes transgenres à “des documents officiels reflétant l’identité de genre choisie, ainsi qu’un accès au traitement de conversion sexuelle”.

“DROITS À LA LIBERTÉ DE RÉUNION ET D’EXPRESSION”

Les parlementaires ont enfin vivement exprimé leur préoccupation face à la violation des droits à la liberté de réunion et d’expression des personnes lesbiennes, gay, bisexuelles et transgenres dans plusieurs États membres du Conseil de l’Europe, ainsi que par “les discours de haine prononcés par certains responsables politiques, religieux et autres représentants de la société civile”.

L’APCE a insisté sur le fait que l’éradication de l’homophobie et de la transphobie “nécessite la volonté politique” des États membres.

Source : Audrey Banegas pour Yagg.com


Le Conseil de l’Europe
pour une responsabilité commune des parents de même sexe

L’Assemblée parlementaire du Conseil de l’Europe (APCE) a demandé jeudi à ses pays membres de garantir la reconnaissance juridique des couples de même sexe et de s’engager en faveur d’une "responsabilité parentale commune". Les parlementaires ont adopté un texte demandant de garantir dans l’espace européen "la reconnaissance juridique des couples de même sexe".

Ils demandent que les Etats "prévoient la possibilité d’une responsabilité parentale commune des enfants de chacun des deux partenaires de même sexe" en tenant compte des intérêts des enfants.

Au terme d’un débat sur "la discrimination en raison de l’orientation sexuelle et de l’identité de genre", l’APCE a demandé que les personnes transgenres puissent accéder à "des documents officiels reflétant l’identité de genre choisie".

Des personnes transgenres se voient régulièrement refuser un traitement de conversion sexuelle ou ne peuvent obtenir une reconnaissance juridique de leur nouveau sexe, "ce qui contribue aux forts taux de suicide observés dans ce groupe", déplore le document.

Les parlementaires qui siègent à Strasbourg, ont également critiqué "les discours de haine prononcés dans certains pays par des responsables politiques ou religieux ainsi que par des médias et sur internet, ce qui est un grave sujet de préoccupation".

Source : E-llico


Le Conseil de l’Europe appelle à l’éradication de l’homophobie et de la transphobie

En dépit d’un solide front d’opposants, les représentants des 47 pays qui siègent dans l’institution européenne ont voté une résolution. Le texte demande aux États de lutter contre les discriminations des LGBT et favoriser la reconnaissance de leurs droits.

La résolution a été adoptée au forceps. Les débats ont en effet été très agités, à Strasbourg, où s’est réunie la semaine dernière l’Assemblée parlementaire du Conseil de l’Europe (APCE). Les représentants issus de 47 pays ont âprement discuté un texte qui se proposait de mettre fin aux « discriminations sur la base de l’orientation sexuelle et de l’identité de genre ». Le texte, qui est non contraignant, a finalement été adopté le jeudi 29 avril. Il vient appuyer la recommandation du Comité des ministres votée le 1er avril.

  • Éradication de l’homophobie et de la transphobie

Selon les termes de cette résolution, l’Assemblée appelle les États européens à garantir « la reconnaissance juridique des couples de même sexe lorsque la législation nationale prévoit une telle reconnaissance » et prévoient la possibilité d’une « responsabilité parentale commune » des enfants de chacun des deux partenaires « en tenant compte des intérêts des enfants » et en définissant un statut de « proche ».

Des avancées, donc, en termes d’union et d’homoparentalité, qui s’accompagnent de recommandations pour la protection des personnes trans. Le texte demande en effet que soit garantie dans la législation et la pratique les droits de personnes transgenres à « des documents officiels reflétant l’identité de genre choisie », ainsi qu’un accès au traitement de conversion sexuelle.

Les représentants européens appellent plus globalement de leurs vœux une éradication de l’homophobie et de la transphobie, en plaçant les Etats face à leurs responsabilités. Cette éradication « nécessite la volonté politique » des pays membres, souligne le texte.

  • Aménagements limites

L’adoption de la résolution doit beaucoup à l’obstination de son initiateur, Andreas Gross . Ce socialiste suisse gay-friendly a dû batailler ferme pour que son texte ne soit pas trop dénaturé sous la pluie d’amendements jetés par ses opposants. Jusqu’à la dernière minute, des modifications ont été soumises au vote, notamment par des représentants italiens du Parti populaire européen. Et malheureusement, certaines sont passées. C’est la raison pour laquelle, finalement, le texte ne demandera pas à tous les États de reconnaître les couples homos, mais seulement à ceux dont la « législation nationale le prévoit ». Cela explique aussi la présence de ce 17e article, qui tolère les discours opposés aux homos ou aux trans, lorsqu’ils sont émis par des représentants des religions et s’ils sont « compatibles avec la Convention européennes des droits de l’homme ».

Ces aménagements limites ont permis en fin de compte l’adoption de cette résolution, sans faire plier pour autant tous les opposants. Parmi les pays unis dans le refus, on trouve ainsi côte-à-côte la Russie, l’Arménie, la Moldavie ou la République tchèque, et des pays très catholiques comme la Pologne, l’Italie ou l’Irlande.

Source : Têtu.com


Spring session : 26-30 April 2010

Discrimination on the basis of s
exual orientation and gender identity

Strasbourg, 29.04.2010 – At the end of a debate on discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly (PACE) today called on European States to guarantee "legal recognition of same-sex partnerships only when national legislation envisages such recognition" and provide for the possibility of "joint parental responsibility" for each partner’s children “bearing in mind the interests of children”.

While pointing out that the eradication of homophobia and transphobia "requires political will" in member States, the adopted text also asks that legislation and practice guarantee the right of transgender persons to "official documents that reflect their preferred gender role" and the right of access to gender reassignment treatment.

On the basis of the report drawn up by Andreas Gross (Switzerland, SOC), the parliamentarians also voiced concerns about violations of the freedom of association and of expression of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons in a number of Council of Europe member states and about "hate speech by certain politicians, religious leaders and other civil society representatives".

Assemblée parlementaire du Conseil de l’Europe (APCE)

Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity - Resolution 1728 (2010)1

1. The Parliamentary Assembly recalls that sexual orientation, which covers heterosexuality, bisexuality and homosexuality, is a profound part of the identity of each and every human being. The Assembly also recalls that homosexuality has been decriminalised in all member states of the Council of Europe. Gender identity refers to each person’s deeply felt internal and individual experience of gender. A transgender person is someone whose gender identity does not correspond to the gender he or she was assigned at birth.

2. Under international law, all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. Sexual orientation and gender identity are recognised as a prohibited ground of discrimination. According to the European Court of Human Rights, a difference in treatment is discriminatory if it has no objective and reasonable justification. Since sexual orientation is a most intimate aspect of an individual’s private life, the Court considers that only particularly serious reasons may justify differences in treatment based on sexual orientation. In its 1999 judgment in Lustig-Prean and Beckett v. the United Kingdom, it emphasised that negative attitudes on the part of a heterosexual majority against a homosexual minority cannot amount to sufficient justification, any more than similar negative attitudes towards those of a different sex, race, origin or colour.

3. Nevertheless, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) persons, as well as human rights defenders working for the rights of LGBT persons, face deeply rooted prejudices, hostility and widespread discrimination all over Europe. The lack of knowledge and understanding about sexual orientation and gender identity is a challenge to be addressed in most Council of Europe member states, since it results in an extensive range of human rights violations, affecting the lives of millions of people. Major concerns include physical and verbal violence (hate crimes and hate speech), undue restrictions on freedom of expression, freedom of assembly and association, violations of the right to respect for private and family life, violations of rights to education, work and health, as well as regular stigmatisation. As a consequence, many LGBT persons across Europe live in fear and have to conceal their sexual orientation or gender identity.

4. Transgender persons face a cycle of discrimination and deprivation of their rights in many Council of Europe member states due to discriminatory attitudes and to obstacles in obtaining gender reassignment treatment and legal recognition of the new gender. One consequence is the relatively high suicide rate among transgender persons.

5. Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity can be magnified on the basis of sex and gender, with lesbian, bisexual and transgender women, in particular, running an increased risk of violence. The LGBT community itself is also not immune to sex discrimination.

6. The Assembly is particularly concerned by the violation of the rights to freedom of assembly and freedom of expression for LGBT persons in a number of Council of Europe member states since these rights are pillars of democracy. This has been illustrated by the banning or attempted banning of peaceful rallies or demonstrations of LGBT persons and their supporters and the overt or tacit support some politicians have given to violent counter-demonstrations.

7. Hate speech by certain political, religious and other civil society leaders, and hate speech in the media and internet are also of particular concern. The Assembly stresses that it is the paramount duty of all public authorities not only to protect the rights enshrined in human rights instruments in a practical and effective manner, but also to refrain from speech likely to legitimise and fuel discrimination or hatred based on intolerance. The boundary between hate speech inciting to crime and freedom of expression is to be determined in accordance with the case law of the European Court of Human Rights.

8. Homophobia and transphobia have particularly serious consequences for young LGBT people. They face widespread bullying, sometimes unhelpful or hostile teachers, and curricula which either ignore LGBT issues or propagate homophobic or transphobic attitudes. A combination of discriminatory attitudes in society and rejection by the family can be very damaging for the mental health of young LGBT people, as evidenced by suicide rates which are much higher than those in the wider youth population.

9. It is important not to criticise the perceived or declared sexual orientation of young people, particularly of those attending school aged under 18, and to recognise that any exploitation of their perceived or declared sexual identity, or any humiliation or degrading treatment on that basis, can be both wrong in itself and potentially harmful to their wellbeing and personal growth both at that stage and later in life.

10. The denial of rights to de facto “LGBT families” in many member states must also be addressed, including through the legal recognition and protection of these families.

11. On the other hand, the Assembly welcomes the fact that, in some cases, political and judicial authorities have taken a number of measures against discrimination affecting LGBT persons.

12. In this context, the Assembly welcomes the work of the Committee of Ministers, which adopted on 31 March 2010 a recommendation to member states on measures to combat discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity (CM/Rec(2010)5), the high priority given by the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights to this issue, as well as the recent reports of the European Union Fundamental Rights Agency on homophobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation in European Union member states.

13. Recalling its Recommendations 1474 (2000) on the situation of lesbians and gays in Council of Europe member states and 1117 (1989) on the condition of transsexuals, the Assembly again condemns the various forms of discrimination suffered by LGBT people in Council of Europe member states. LGBT people should not have to fear being stigmatised and victimised, either in the public and private spheres.

14. The Assembly considers that the Council of Europe has the duty to promote a clear message of respect and non-discrimination so that everybody can live in dignity in all its member states.

15. The eradication of homophobia and transphobia also requires political will in member states to implement a consistent human rights approach and to embark on a wide range of initiatives. In this respect, the Assembly stresses the specific responsibility of parliamentarians in initiating and supporting changes in legislation and policies in Council of Europe member states.

16. Consequently, the Assembly calls on member states to address these issues and in particular to :

16.1. ensure that the fundamental rights of LGBT people, including freedom of expression and freedom of assembly and association, are respected, in line with international human rights standards ;

16.2. provide legal remedies to victims and put an end to impunity for those who violate fundamental rights of LGBT people, in particular their right to life and security ;

16.3. recognise that lesbian, bisexual and transgender women face an increased risk of gender-based violence (in particular rape, sexual violence and harassment, as well as forced marriages) and provide protection commensurate with the increased risk ;

16.4. condemn hate speech and discriminatory statements and effectively protect LGBT persons from such statements while respecting the right to freedom of expression, in accordance with the European Convention on Human Rights and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights ;

16.5. adopt and implement anti-discrimination legislation which includes sexual orientation and gender identity among the prohibited grounds for discrimination, as well as sanctions for infringements ;

16.6. revoke legislative provisions which are not in conformity with the case law of the European Court of Human Rights ;

16.7. ensure that discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity can be effectively reported to judicial and non-judicial bodies and ensure that national human rights structures and equality bodies effectively address these issues ;

16.8. sign and ratify Protocol No. 12 to the European Convention on Human Rights providing for a general prohibition of discrimination ;

16.9. ensure legal recognition of same-sex partnerships only when national legislation envisages such recognition, as already recommended by the Assembly in 2000, by providing for :

16.9.1. the same pecuniary rights and obligations as those pertaining to different-sex couples ;

16.9.2. "next of kin" status ;

16.9.3. measures to ensure that, where one partner in a same-sex relationship is foreign, this partner is accorded the same residence rights as would apply if she or he were in a heterosexual relationship ;

16.9.4. recognition of provisions with similar effects adopted by other member states ;

16.10. provide the possibility for joint parental responsibility of each partner’s children, bearing in mind the interests of children ;

16.11. address the specific discrimination and human rights violations faced by transgender persons and, in particular, ensure in legislation and in practice their right to :

16.11.1. safety ;

16.11.2. documents that reflect an individual’s preferred gender identity, without any prior obligation to undergo sterilisation or other medical procedures such as sex reassignment surgery and hormonal therapy ;

16.11.3. access to gender reassignment treatment and equal treatment in health care areas ;

16.11.4. equal access to work, goods, services, housing and other facilities, without prejudice ;

16.11.5. relationship recognition, in accordance with the case law of the European Court of Human Rights ;

16.12. introduce or develop anti-discrimination and awareness-raising programmes fostering tolerance, respect and understanding of LGBT persons, in particular for public officials, the judiciary, law-enforcement bodies and the armed forces, as well as schools, the media, the medical profession and sporting circles ;

16.13. promote research on discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity, establish and/or maintain regular contacts with human rights defenders working on the rights of LGBT persons and consult them on issues relating to such discrimination ;

16.14. encourage dialogue between national human rights institutions, equality bodies, human rights defenders working on the rights of LGBT persons and religious institutions, based on mutual respect, in order to facilitate public debates and reforms on issues concerning LGBT persons ;

16.15. recognise persecution of LGBT persons as a ground for granting asylum and implement the 2008 Guidance Note on refugee claims relating to sexual orientation and gender identity of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees ;

16.16. fully implement in their law and practice the recommendation of the Committee of Ministers on measures to combat discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity.

17. Member states may grant exemptions to religious institutions and organisations when such institutions and organisations are either engaging in religious activities or when legal requirements conflict with tenets of religious belief and doctrine, or would require such institutions and organisations to forfeit any portion of their religious autonomy, and if such exemptions are compatible with the European Convention on Human Rights, as interpreted by the European Court of Human Rights.


Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity Recommendation 1915 (2010)1

1. Referring to its Resolution 1728 (2010), the Parliamentary Assembly commends the Committee of Ministers for its recommendation on measures to combat discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity (CM/Rec(2010)5).

2. The Assembly considers that the Council of Europe has indeed the duty to promote a clear message of respect and non-discrimination. In addition, the Council of Europe is particularly well placed to develop human rights standards, offer expertise and advice and serve as a forum for discussion on issues related to discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity.

3. Consequently, the Assembly recommends that the Committee of Ministers :

3.1. monitor the implementation of its recent recommendation to member states on measures to combat discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity ;

3.2. define further Council of Europe action in this field, in particular :

3.2.1. instruct a relevant Council of Europe body to review and address issues related to discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity in member states, and provide the necessary resources to this body to carry out this task ;

3.2.2. further mainstream issues relating to discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity in its activities, and disseminate the case law of the European Court of Human Rights on sexual orientation and gender identity, including through publications and training materials ;

3.2.3. in the framework of its work on children and violence, address in particular the issue of homophobic and transphobic bullying at school ;

3.2.4. further develop anti-discrimination and awareness-raising programmes fostering tolerance, respect and understanding of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons and, in particular, organise a campaign to combat discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity ;

3.3 instruct the Ad hoc Committee on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (CAHVIO) to include in the future Council of Europe convention the severest and most widespread forms of violence against women, in accordance with Assembly Recommendation 1847 (2008), and to recognise that lesbian, bisexual and transgender women face an increased risk of gender-based violence (in particular rape, sexual violence and harassment, as well as forced marriages) and provide appropriate protection commensurate with this increased risk.